GIS is a broad term that can refer to a number of different technologies, processes, and methods. It is attached to many operations and has many applications. we are working on engineering, planning, management with in GIS.For that reason, GIS and location intelligence applications can be the foundation for location-enabled services for analysis and visualization.
CGIS was an improvement over computer mapping applications as it provided capabilities for overlay, measurement, and digitizing/scanning. It supported a national coordinate system that spanned the continent, coded lines as arcs having a true embedded topology and it stored the attribute and locational information in separate files.
The most common method of data creation is digitization, a map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through the use of a CAD program. Modern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. GIS data represents real objects such as roads, elevation, trees, with digital data determining the mix. Real objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects and continuous fields such as rainfall elevations.
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